Compression of mortality: the evolution in the variability in the age of death in Latin America

Marcos Roberto Gonzaga, Bernardo L. Queiroz, Everton E. Campos De Lima

Resumen


Compresión de la mortalidad: la evolución en la variabilidad en la edad de muerte en América Latina

Los países latinoamericanos están experimentando cambios importantes en sus perfiles de mortalidad, vinculados a la especificidad de la transición epidemiológica y de la salud en la región. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es estudiar la evolución de los perfiles de edad de la mortalidad y la distribución de la edad de las defunciones para un conjunto depaíses América Latina; con ello se busca identificar los efectos de los cambios de mortalidad sobre la variabilidad en la edad a la muerte. En primer lugar, a partir de diversas fuentes (OMS, LAHMD y LAMBdA), evaluamos la calidad de de las series de datos nacionales de mortalidad en los países analizados. Usando un modelo relacional, estimamos los patrones de mortalidad por edad simpleen cada país en América Latina. Por último, utilizamos métricas tradicionales para analizar la variabilidad de la edad de las defunciones.

Nuestros resultados indican que la calidad de los datos de mortalidad está mejorando con el tiempo en todos los países estudiados. También encontramos una disminución en la variabilidad de la edad de la muerte, más rápida para las mujeres que para los hombres. En los últimos años, el aumento de la mortalidad por causas externas relacionadas con la violencia ha reducido el aumento de la esperanza de vida al nacer y ha aumentado la variabilidad en la edad de muerte en varios países de la región.

Estos resultados contribuyen al estudio de los cambios en la mortalidad en América Latina a partir del análisis de la compresión de la mortalidad y la variabilidad de la edad a la muerte. Durante el último medio siglo, ha habido una reducción en la variabilidad de la edad a la muerte, pero, más recientemente, el aumentode las causas externas de muerte se ha asociado con un estancamiento en el proceso de compresión. El análisis también proporciona algunas reflexiones y preguntas sobre las tendencias de morbilidad en la región.


Palabras clave


compresión de la mortalidad; América Latina; calidad de las estadísticas de mortalidad

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31406/n23a2

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